The Exploration of the Gyeongju Historic Area
– UNESCO World Heritage: Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, Taekkyeon
– Date: September 15(Sat) ~ September 16(Sun). 2018
– Location: Gyeongju, Andong
1) Gyeongju National Museum
2) Daereungwon Tomb Complex
3) Cheonmachong Tomb
4) Cheomseongdae Observatory
5) Donggung Palace and Wolji Pond
6) Hahoe Mask Museum
7) Andong Hahoe Village
8) Hahoe Mask Dance Drama Performance – Hahoe Byeolsingut Tanori
|08:20 ~ 13:00||∙ Seoul → Gyeongju|
|13:00 ~ 14:00||∙ Lunch at Ipungnyeo GuroSsambap (Set Menu with Leaf Wraps and Rice)|
|14:00 ~ 14:30||∙ Restaurant → Gyeongju National Museum|
|14:30 ~ 15:40||∙ Exhibition tour (Outdoor Exhibition: Divine Bell of King Seongdeok, Silla History Gallery)|
|15:40 ~ 16:20||∙ Site of preservation treatment tour|
|16:20 ~ 16:30||∙ Gyeongju National Museum → Daereungwon Tomb Complex|
|16:30 ~ 17:10||∙ Daereungwon Tomb Complex, Cheonmachong Tomb tour|
|17:10 ~ 17:40||∙ Daereungwon Tomb Complex → Restaurant|
|17:40 ~ 19:00||∙ Dinner at Youngnam Sikyuk Sikdang (Grilled Hanwoo/Handon, Korean beef and pork)|
|19:00 ~ 19:30||∙ Restaurant → Cheomseongdae Observatory|
|19:30 ~ 20:30||∙ Cheomseongdae Observatory, Donggung Palace and Wolji Pond tour|
|21:00||∙ Check in at The K Hotel, Gyeongju|
|07:30 ~ 08:50||∙ Hotel breakfast and check-out|
|09:00 ~ 11:00||∙ Hotel → Andong|
|11:00 ~ 12:00||∙ Hahoe Mask making and Hahoe Mask Museum tour|
|12:00 ~ 12:05||∙ Hahoe Mask Museum Restaurant|
|12:05 ~ 13:00||∙ Lunch at Hahoe Mokseokwon Garden (Andong Jjimdak, braised chicken)|
|13:00 ~ 13:05||∙ Restaurant → Andong Hahoe Village|
|13:05 ~ 14:00||∙ Andong Hahoe Village tour|
|14:00 ~ 15:00||∙ Hahoe Mask Dance Drama Performance – Hahoe Byeolsingut Tallori|
|15:00 ~ 18:30||∙ Andong → Seoul|
UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROGRAM BOOKLET
PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM
To feel the thousand years of history and culture of Silla in affiliation with the Gyeongju National Museum and Gyeongju Historic Area.
To visit Andong Hahoe Village, a representative historical village in Korea, to enhance understanding of Korean culture through the experience of Korean traditional culture combined with Confucianism
The Gyeongju National Museum (국립경주박물관)
The Gyeongju National Museum, dedicated to the preservation of historical artifacts of Silla, is one of Korea’s largest and most prestigious museums. The Gyeongju bran ch of the National Museum of Korea opened in 1945, the Gyeongju National Museum moved to its current location at the heart of the ancient capital of Silla in 1975.
Situated within the historic part of Gyeongju listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, the Gyeongju National Museum lies close to some of Korea’s major historical attractions. Among the latter are Wolseong Fortress, once the site of a Silla palace, Wolji, Daereungwon Park, home to Silla’s royal tombs, and the ruins of Hwangnyongsa Temple Site. The museum also faces Namsan Mountain, which lies to the south and is much admired as a sanctuary of K Korean Buddhist art.
The museum offers three permanent exhibition galleries including the Silla History Gallery, Silla Art Gallery and Wolji Gallery, and one Special Exhibition Gallery for feature programs. Meanwhile, a variety of exhibits such as Divine Bell of King Seongdeok and the Three-Story Stone Stupa from Goseonsa Temple Site are on display in its Outdoor Exhibition area.
The Gyeongju National Museum also offers abundant resources for children. In addition to the Children’s Museum, the museum operates a museum school, which has introduced tens of thousands of young children to the joy of museum-going over its 60 years of existence.
The museum also conducts a variety of education programs in cultural subjects throughout the year. Begin your historical journey to the brilliant ancient civilization that once flourished in the Gyeongju region at the Gyeongju National Museum!
Silla History Gallery (신라역사관)
Room 1 : In the prehistoric age, the people of Geyongju still used stone axes. Learn how society took shape, gradually turning into a kingdom with political agendas. Get a glimpse of Silla Dynasty in its early days when it established the foundation for a 1,000-year-old kingdom.
Room 2 : The Silla Dynasty began to take shape in the mid-4th century, formed a kingdom under the Maripgan’s (a title denoting king or ruler in the early period of Silla) command. Silla had ample source of gold and it represented power and authority for the king and his family.
Room 3 : Jijeung Maripgan declared the newfound kingdom Silla in 503, and changed his title from Maripgan to King. King Jijeung continued to conquer nearby lands around the 6th century, centralizing power in the form of a true kingdom.
Room 4 : Silla brought Baekje Kingdom down in CE 660, and then Goguryeo Kingdom in CE 668. With Silla emerging victorious against Chinese Tang, the unification of the three
Silla Art Gallery (신라미술관)
Buddhist Arts Room : Buddhist fine works of art that show the splendid Buddhist culture of Silla are displayed in chronological order. The exhibit includes the following items: reliquaries that were found at the stone stupa at Bunhwangsa Temple and the west stone stupa at Gameunsa Temple Site; the Maitreya Buddha triad from the Jangchanggol Valley of Namsan Mountain in Gyeongju; and the Bhaisajyaguru Buddha of Baengnyulsa Temple.
Kukeun Collection Room : There are several precious cultural heritage objects donated by Lee Yang-sun (pen-name: Kukeun) that are on display in this room. The main items include a Warrior on Horseback Cup and Lacquered Bronze Stirrups.
Hwangnyongsa Room : Chimi (roof-end tile), a sarira reliquary, and roof tiles found at the site of Hwangnyongsa Temple, which was the most prestigious temple in Silla, are displayed in this room.
Wolji Gallery (월지관)
Carefully selected items from the site of Wolji, a pond built on palace grounds by King Munmu (661~681 CE), are exhibited in this gallery.
Unlike the artifacts excavated from the burial mounds, the variety of practical wares in this exhibit show aspects of the daily life of the royal court in the Silla period. The two floors of the gallery exhibit Wolji artifacts by subject matter, such as earthenwares, building materials, written materials, metalworks, and Buddhist sculptures, to help the viewer better understand the culture of the Unified Silla period, especially the culture of everyday life in the royal court.
Outdoor Exhibition (옥외전시장)
A variety of stone sculptural works such as Stupas, Buddhist statues, and lanterns found from the sites of ancient temples and palaces from Gyeongju and its surrounding areas are exhibited here. Included in the exhibition are the Divine Bell of King Seongdeok and the Three-story Stone Stupa from the Goseonsa Temple Site.
Daereungwon Tomb Complex – Cheonmachong Tomb (대릉원 – 천마총)
Within Daereungwon Tomb Complex is Cheonmachong Tomb (Ancient Tomb No. 155), which was excavated in 1973. Cheonmachong Tomb consists of a wooden coffin placed inside an underground chamber mounded with boulders and earth, characterized as a typical upper-class tomb of the Silla period. The mound has a height of 12.7 m with a diameter of 50 m, and consists of a layer of rocks collected from streams. Below the rock layer is a wooden chamber with a length of 6.5 m and a width of 2.1, reaching 2.1 m in height, with the wooden coffin at its center. A total of 11,526 artifacts were discovered within the tomb, including Cheonmado, an artwork considered to be highly valuable as it is Korea’s first artwork to be excavated from an ancient tomb.
Cheomseongdae Observatory (첨성대)
Cheomseongdae is the oldest existing astronomical observatory in Asia. Constructed during the reign of Queen Seon-deok (r. 632-647), it was used for observing the stars in order to forecast the weather. This stone structure is a beautiful combination of straight lines and curves, and was designated as National Treasure No.31 on December 20th, 1962.
Cheomseongdae was built in a cylinder shape with stones 30cm in diameter. 362 stones were piled up to make 27 levels. Roughly 4.16m up from the bottom there is a 1㎡ square entrance and a space to hang a ladder under it. The inside is filled with soil up to the 12th level, and the 19th, 20th, 25th, and 26th levels all have long rocks hanging on two areas, shaped as the Chinese letter ‘井’ (jeong).
It stands 9.17m high and the base stone on each side measures 5.35m. The Vernal Equinox, Autumnal Equinox, Winter Solstice, Summer Solstice and the 24 solar terms (also known as the astronomical solar year) were determined by the observation of stars. The pavilion stone is believed to have been used as a standard of deciding directions, north, south, east and west. The 362 stones used to build Cheomseongdae represented the 362 days in a lunar year.
Donggung Palace and Wolji Pond (동궁과 월지)
Gyeongju Donggung Palace and Wolji Pond were the secondary palace site which was used for the palace of the Crown Prince along with other subsidiary buildings and it also was the banquet site for important national event and important visitors. After the fall of Silla, the site was abandoned and forgotton. The pond was referred to as “Anapji” instead during the time of Goryeo and Joseon period. In the 1980s, pottery fragment with letters “Wolji” (a pond that reflects the moon) carved onto it was found, revealing the true name of the pond. After the discovery, the site has been renamed to the current Donggung Palace and Wolji Pond.
Hahoe Mask Museum (하회세계탈박물관)
Hahoe Mask Museum is located in Andong Hahoe Village, which is both a UNESCO World Heritage Site and Important Folklore Material No. 122. Hahoe Village is a representative traditional Korean folk town and is the home of the Hahoe Mask (National Treasure No. 121) and the Byeolsin Gut Mask Dance (Important Intangible Cultural Properties No. 69). The museum not only displays Hahoe masks, but also other traditional masks from all over the world.
The museum consists of five permanent exhibition halls and one special exhibition hall, housing a wide range of masks from all over the world along with Hahoe masks. The museum also offers activity programs such as wearing a mask, mask trick art, photo zone, and more.
Andong Hahoe Village (안동하회마을)
Hahoe Village is home to descendants of the Ryu clan of Pungsan and is well-known for its traditional houses. Birthplace of renowned scholars of the Joseon Period such as Gyeomam Ryu Un-ryong and Seoae Ryu Seong-ryong. Hahoe Village (translating to “Village Enveloped by Water”) gets its name from Nakdong River, which flows around the town’s perimeter.
The village is located at the foothills of Hwasan Mountain, an offshoot of Taebaek Mountain that rises up to the east. The center of the village is populated by large tile-roofed houses belonging to the Ryu clan, adding their own unique charm to the surrounding thatched roofs.
Hahoe Village has conserved Hahoe Byeolsingut Mask Dance Play performed by the public in general, and Seonyujulbul Nori-a boat ride and fire paly enjoyed by the nobility called Yangban. The village conserves many cultural heritages which show Korean traditional living cultures and ancient architectural styles.
Hahoe Village boasts exquisite scenic sights: the elegant Nakdong River flowing around the village, the magnificent Buyongdae Cliff, endlessly unfolding sandy beaches, and lush, ancient pine trees. Visitors can take the boat to Buyongdae Cliff for a panoramic view of the village.
Hahoe Village was added to the UNESCO World Heritage List under the category of “Historic Villages in Korea” on July 31, 2010.
Hahoe Mask (하회탈)
The Hahoe masks are oldest masks of Korea which also highly appraised as worldwide masterpieces of mask art. It is said that the Hahoe masks were originally comprised of 12 masks, of which only nine remain; Yangban(aristocrat) Mask, Kakshi(young woman) Mask, Sonbi(scholar)Mask, Pune Mask, Paekchong(butcher)Mask, Chung(Monk) Mask, Imae (servant of the Sonbi) Mask, Halmi(old woman) Mask and Choraengi(servant of the Yangban) Mask. The three lost masks, the Ch’onggak(bachelor), Ttoktari(servant), and pyolch’ae (low-grade government official) masks, are known only by their names.
The Hahoe masks portray human face excepting for the two Chuji(lion) masks. On the basis of physiognomy, their countenances express the social position, occupation, and economic status.
Kakshi Tal – Bride Mask (각시탈)
Kakshi T’al (Bride Mask) has very small eyes to show her shyness and a tiny mouth indication that she does not often speak. She plays the role of the local goddess in the first act and the bride in the last.
Chyji Tal – Lion Mask (사자탈)
Chyji T’al (Lion Mask) is a highly imaginative creature, bearing a fin-like wing and billed mouth. The fantastic visage comes purely from the minds of Koreans of the day, who wished to depict a lion (the superme creature in Buddhism) without ever having seen one.
Paekchong Tal (백정탈)
Paekchong T’al (Butcher Mask) has a coarse and well-lined brown face. Depending on how it is seen, the face either appears to be grinning (mad with the pleasure of killing living creatures) or cruel and sinister (the butcher’s true nature).
Halmi Tal (할미탈)
Halmi T’al (Old widow Mask) has a tiny, wizened brown face to show the hard life she has led. It has a pathetic expression. The open mouth is always ready to take in food and pour out lamentations.
Chung Tal – Depraved Budddist Monk Mask (파계승탈)
Chung T’al (Depraved Budddist Monk Mask) has a greasy, grinning face to show his dissimulating behavior. The crescent-shaped eyes reveal that he is a lecher. He is not a monk who leads and ascetic life, but a depraved man who wanders begging from village to village.
Choraengi Tal – Busybody Mask (초랭이탈)
Ch’oraengi T’al (Busybody Mask) has a tiny, lopsided, brown face with buck teeth that reveal his discontent. His projected forehead means that he does not agree with his master, and his short nose shows that he is impulsive. He simply cannot resist meddling in other people’s lives.
Imae Tal – Fool Mask (바보탈)
Imae T’al (Fool Mask) has a happy-go-lucky face, which instantly shows that he is a simple-minded fool. The crooked nose reveals that he is deformed and the down-slanted eyes show that he is free from malice. He plays Sonbi’s foolish servant. This is the only mask without a chin.
Pune Tal (부네탈)
Pune T’al(Flirtatious Youngwoman Mask) has a heavily made-up oval face with a smiling mouth, high nose and semi-circular eyebrows. The smiling face is very seductive and flirtations. She plays the role of a professional entertainer or the concubine of an aristocrat.
Sonbi Tal – Scholar Mask (선비탈)
Sonbi T’al (Scholar Mask) has wide nostrils and well-developed cheek bones to show that he is a scholar, full of discontent and unable to adjust to society. The mask reveals not only the dignity appropriate to a scholar, but also the arrogance that does not befit him. A Sonbi was a scholar who did not hold a government position, so spent his time studying the Chiness classics or writing poetry. In the play, Sonbi is severely satirized.
Yangban Tal – Aristocrat Mask (양반탈)
Yangban T’al (Aristocrat Mask) has a long, black heard to show dignity, and an expressive smile that reveals both generosity and smugness. If the performer looks upright, his face appears cheerful and smiling; if he looks downward, his expression is angry and tight-lipped. This mask is believed to represent the highest artistic value of the Hahoe mask.
Hahoe Mask Dance Drama Performance – Hahoe Byeolsingut Tanori (하회별신굿 탈놀이)
Hahoe Pyolshin-Gut T’al-Nori is one of Korea’s most traditional folk plays.
Handed down at Hahoe-ri, P’ungch’on-myon, Andong-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, the mask dance drama has been performed for centuries as a village ritual, Until 1928 the shaman ritual had been performed at intervals of three, five or sometimes ten years, depending on the revelation of the local goddess or an local circumstances. The performance began on lunar New Year’s Day and continued at various places around the village until midmonth.
The village sacrificial rite was observed at Sonangdong, the village shaman shrine, early on the morning of January 15th.
The drama combines shaman rituals and popular entertainment. The village ritual was intended to please the local goddess and exorcise evil spirits. The village prayed for an abundant harvest and for peace and prosperity, while enjoying themselves performing the play. The whole village took park in the event and enjoyed the satirical story revealed in the drama.
It was said that if you did not have a chance to watch the mask dance performed in your lifetime, you could not go to heaven.
Like most other folk mask dance dramas handed down in rural communities across Korea, Hahoe Pyolshin-Gut T’al-Nori features various allegorical characters, such as Yangban(an arrogant aristocrat), Sonbi(a pedantic scholar), Chung(a depraved Buddhist monk), Imae(a foolish servant), Paekchong(a coarse butcher) and so on, Each of these characters represents a social class.
Conflicts among different classes and individuals were satirized to relieve social tensions among the families in the village.
The Hahoe mask dance differs from others in its more natural movements and simpler costumes. In addition, though the story is satirical and humorous, it does not culminate in the traditional ritual of burning the masks.
The dance is accompanied by non-ak, the traditional Korean farmers’ percussion ensemble. Non-ak is korea’s most popular and probably oldest dance music. The powerful sounds of the traditional quartet, comprising the kkwaenggwari(small gong), ching(large gong), puk(large drum) and changgo(long drum), pour forth a hypnotic beat.
Originating in ancient times, it was performed to celebrate important rural events, such as village sacrificial rites, rice planting and harvesting, as well as for enjoyment.
On most occasions today, the mask dance is performed simply as an entertainment, losing much of its original splendor and religious and social significance.
In 1980 the government, designated the mask dance drama as Important Intangible Cultual Property No. 69, to ensure its preservation and transmission to future generation. The Hahoe Pyolshim-Gut T’al-nori Preservation Society, Which revived and exclusively presents the mask dance, seeks not only to preserve the drama, but also to introduce one of Korea’s greatest cultural treasures to the rest of the rest of the world.
Yangban and Sunbi Madang (양반 선비 마당)
An aristocrat (Yangban) and a scholar (Sonbi) appear, each trying to outshine the other in his knowledge and status.
They are mocked by Ch’oraengi, and lose face. Paekchang approaches the pair, asking them to buy the bull testicles.
At first they think it would be indecent, but when the butcher says the testicles will strenthen their sexual energies they quarrel with each other to buy them.
The old widow(Halmi) enters again and laughs at their behavior, then helps reconcile their differences. Ch’raengijoins them and they all dance joyfully.
This act encourages the ruling class to reconsider its real place in society, while the commoners let off a little steam, alleviating conflict between classes.
(Yangban and Sonbi are sitting along way from each other. They clear their throats unnecessarily, stroking their long beards. Each is try to look more dignified than the other, Ch’oraengi runs in, all excited.)
Pagyesung Madang (파계승 마당)
In the mountains a young woman(Pune) appears performing a dance. She looks around to make sure nobody is nearby, then squats and relieves herself. At that moment a wandering monk (Chung) catches sight of her and it stirs up his passion. He dances with her. As he runs away with the girl on his back, he is seen by Ch’oraengi (the busybody).
This act criticizes religion corruption of the day.
Halmi Madang (할미 마당)
An old widow(Halmi) appears with a white scarf around her head and carrying a hand loom. The granny became widowed only three days after her wedding at the age of fourteen.
She weaves for a little while, then gets up and dances alone, bewailing her ill-fortune and begging the spectators for donations.
The mask of Halmi reveals the poverty and the visage of a woman of the world. The act symbolizes the conflicts between social classes the pain of life for the common people.
Paekchong Madang (백정 마당)
A butcher(Paekchong) enters with a straw bag containing an ax and a knife, and dances by himself. When he sees a big brown bull dance in, he dances with the bull, then kills it with his ax and cuts out its heart and testicles. He asks the spectators to buy the heart or testicles, and dances again when no one offers to buy them. When it thunders, he gets frightened and exits. The act satirizes the authoritative attitudes of the ruling class toward sexual life, removing the sexual taboo. This causes the spectators to laugh, and the butcher wins their sympathy.
(holding a red object high in the air) who wants to buy a bull heart? Look! It’s still warm. Eat it like this and weaklings will become strong and dizziness will disappear. Nobody wants it? Huh, these people! Fancy not knowing the value of a fresh bull heart. (He puts it into his bag and this time holds up a large, brownish object.) How about the testicles, then? Surely you must know what they are good for?
What is more important than virility for a man? An old man with two young wives is envied by all; even Confucius was married and had children. there is nothing like the balls of a bull to improve a man’s performance. Bull balls for sale! Anybody for the bull balls?(he dances around and exits)
Chuji Madang (주지 마당)
A male and female Chuji(lion) appear, dancing and playfully fighting. The female lion wins, promising the village high productivity and an abundant harvest for the year.
Then Ch’oraengi(the meddler)enters, chases the Chujis away, and dances on alone.
This act sanctifies the place where the play is to be performed by driving away demons and evil spirits.
Mudong Madang (무동 마당)
In this act, a young lady (Kakshi) appears, dancing on the shoulders of andther performer and asks people to make offerings for their blessing and wealth.
Kakshi is believed to be the personified local goddess, so she must not tread on the ground, but must always stay on the shoulders of a man.
This act is more a sacrificial service than a play.
By welcoming kakshi, the villagers please the goddess and pray for peace and an abundant harvest.