Foreign Literary Dignitaries
Invitation Literature Showcase
– UNESCO World Heritage: Baekje Historic Area
– Date: June 23(Sat) ~ June 24(Sun). 2018
– Location: Buyeo County and Jeonju City
UNESCO World Heritage: Baekje Historic Area
Intangible Cultural Heritage of Korea
1) National Intangible Heritage Center
3) The culture of Jeju Haenyeo
|07:40~08:00||∙ Arrival (Oakwood Premier Hotel lobby)|
|08:00~12:00||∙ Seoul → Jeonju Hanok Village|
|12:00~13:00||∙ Lunch at Sinbengi (Beef Bibimbap + Kimchijeon)|
|13:00~13:30||∙ Sinbengi → National Intangible Heritage Center|
|13:30~14:30||∙ UNESCO video and exhibition tour at the National Intangible Heritage Center|
|14:30~15:30||∙ Intangible Heritage of Humanity’(Imsil-Pilbong Nongak) UNESCO|
|15:30~16:00||∙ Break time|
|16:00~17:30||∙ Intangible Heritage of Humanity’ Performance (Haenyeo) UNESCO|
|17:30~18:00||∙ National Intangible Heritage Center → Sumihwa|
|18:00~19:30||∙ Dinner at Sumihwa (Korean Table d’hote)|
|19:30~||∙ Check in at Ramada Hotel, Jeonju|
|~09:00||∙ Hotel breakfast and check-out|
|09:00 ~ 10:00||∙ Hotel → Jeongnimsa Temple Site|
|10:00 ~ 10:40||∙ Jeongnimsa Temple site and exhibition tour|
|10:40 ~ 10:50||∙ Jeongnimsa Temple site → Buyeo Gwanbuk-ri Relics|
|10:50 ~ 12:30||∙ Buyeo Gwanbuk-ri Relics → Busosanseong Fortress → Nakhwaam Rock → Yellow Sail Boat|
|12:30 ~ 12:40||∙ Gudeurae Dock → House of Baekje|
|12:40 ~ 13:30||∙ Lunch at the House of Baekje (Baekje Yeonbap; steamed rice
wrapped in lotus leaf)
|13:30 ~ 13:40||∙ House of Baekje → Baekje Culture Land|
|13:40 ~ 15:30||∙ Exhibition tour at the Baekje Historical Museum → Sabigung Palace → Neungsa → Living Culture Village|
|15:30 ~ 18:30||∙ Buyeo → Seoul|
UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE PROGRAM BOOKLET
PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAMME
To feel, through activity, performance, and exhibition in affiliation with the National Intangible Heritage Center, the intangible cultural heritage of humanity, with which the spirit, soul, beauty, and excitement of ancient Korea are imbued.
To explore the intrinsic culture, religion, and art of the Baekje Kingdom through the exploration of the Baekje Historic area, a UNESCO World Heritage site.
To learn about the intangible heritage of humanity and to enjoy the performance through hands-on experience in affiliation with the National Intangible Heritage Center. The themes will be‘experiencing the intangible cultural heritage of humanity’ and ‘exploring Baekje Cultural Heritage’.
Jeonju Hanok Village (전주한옥마을)
Jeonju Hanok Village is located in the city of Jeonju and overlaps Pungnam-dong and Gyo-dong. There are over 800 traditional Korean hanok houses. While the rest of the city has been industrialized, Hanok Village retains its historical charms and traditions. Jeonju Hanok Village is especially beautiful for its unique roof edges, which are slightly raised to the sky. Hanok houses are generally divided into two sections, Anchae and Sarangchae. Sarangchae is where the men dwelt, and is referred to as the Seonbi room. Because men and women had to remain separate, Anchae is situated deep inside the house so that it is secretive and quiet. Another trait of hanok is that all the houses are heated with ondol, a unique sub-floor heating system. Since Koreans enjoy sitting, eating, and sleeping on the floor, it needs to remain heated. A part of the hanok has been set aside so that tourists can experience traditional Korean life, called Hanok Life Experience Hall. You can enter the rooms to experience the warm floor first-hand. An advantage of this system is that it is warm in the winter and cool in the summer. The food provided is very traditional, which adds to the traditional ambience. At Jeonju Hanok Village, visitors can enjoy traditional Korean life and traditional dishes, like bibimbap, the most well-known dish from the Jeonju region.
Gyeonggijeon Shrine (경기전)
Historic Site No. 339, Gyeonggijeon Shrine was erected in 1410 and holds the portrait of King Tae-jo, the founder of the Joseon Dynasty. The king and his wife e’s mortuary tablets are enshrined here at Jogyeong Shrine. The structure was partially destroyed during the Imjin War (1592-1598), and the existing structure was remodeled in 1614. Inside Gyeonggijeon, the portraits of King Tae-jo and other successive kings, such as Sun-jong, Cheol-jong, Yeong-jo and many others, can be found on display. The carriage used to move the mortuary tablets as well as transport dignitaries. Individual chair-like carriages are also on display.
National Intangible Heritage Center (국립무형문화유산원)
Unlike material cultural heritage, intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is ‘living heritage’, which is practiced and passed down by humans throughout history.
The National Intangible Heritage Center (NIHC) is the first complex administrative institution for the safeguarding and transmission of Korean ICH, and it fosters ICH through research, archiving, exhibitions, performances, educational programs, support for the Masters of ICH, and extension of the traditional crafts market.
NIHC comprises various facilities, such as permanent/special exhibition galleries, performance halls, archives, international conference rooms, and learning spaces.
NIHC is a hub of Korean ICH and the core of international networks of ICH. NIHC actively cooperates with Asian-Pacific nations, as well as the nations of Africa, Europe, and America.
Nongak, community band music, dance and rituals in the Republic of Korea (농악)
Nongak originated from communal rites and rustic entertainment that promoted harmony as people gathered to pray for peace and prosperity. It has evolved into a representative performing art genre of Korea, widely performed and enjoyed by all Koreans.
Nongak has been practiced for various purposes, such as appeasing gods, chasing off evil spirits and seeking blessings, praying for a rich harvest in spring, celebrating the harvest in autumn festivals, and professional entertainment.
Any joyful community event was never complete without music and dance performed by the local band clad in colourful costumes. The music frequently uses uneven beats of complex structures, like simple three-time, compound time, and a mix of simple time and compound time. Small hand-held gongs and hourglass drums play the main beats, while large gongs and barrel drums create simple rhythmic accents.
Nongak has distinctive regional styles, generally divided among five cultural centers: Gyeonggi/Chungcheong Provinces, Gangwon Province, North/South Gyeongsang Provinces, and North/South Jeolla Provinces subdivided into East/West Honam regions. Within each area, differences exist from one village to another in band composition, performing style, rhythm, and costumes. The central government designated six elements of Nongak as important intangible cultural heritage performances: Jinju/Samcheonpo Nongak, Pyeongtaek Nongak, Iri Nongak, Gangneung Nongak, Imsil Pilbong Nongak, and Gurye Jansu Nongak.
Imsil Pilbong Nongak (임실필봉농악)
Honamjwado-Pilbong farm music, which is national intangible cultural asset No.11-5, is a representative Poongmool Good of Honamjwado that was handed down from Imsil-gun, Kangjin-myeon, Pilboing-ri. It’s history is approximately 300 years long and it started to develop into a high standard Poongmool Good since a famous Sangswe called Pak Hak-Sam from Kangjin-myeon came to the village. The art of Pilbong farm music blossomed after the era of the second Sangswe Song Ju-Ho when Yan Soon-Yong, the original possessor of the music became the new Sangswe. Master Yang was born in the village of Pilbong and dedicated himself to the systematization and initiation of Pilbong farm music. After his unfortunate death in 1995, Yang Jin-Sung succeeded him and became the new Sangswe. He is currently working vigorously to spread the spirit of Pilbong through many concerts and lessons.
The characteristic of Pilbong farm music can be compared to other regions where people follow ‘Ahpgood’, a style which emphasizes forms and positions. Town folk and musicians join together and create a party-like mood called ‘Dwitgoot’. There are Goggals and Sogos to boost the atmosphere, and the rhythms are powerful, straight, and somewhat rough.
The culture of Jeju Haenyeo (제주해녀문화)
The culture of Jeju haenyeo exists throughout Jeju Island, and it includes the practitioners of diving work which are called hanyeo or jamnyeo or jamsu; muljil, the diving work transmitted from a mother to a daughter or from a mother-in-law to a daughter-in-law; jamsugut, a shamanistic ritual for the goddess of the sea; and Haenyeo Norae (or Haenyeo Song).
A Jeju haenyeo has her mental map of sea, including the reefs and the habitats for shellfish. By repeated diving over a long time, this understanding and ability to form such a map have been acquired. On average, Jeju haenyeo hold their breath for one minute while diving meters deep underwater to gather shellfish. Based on their diving skills, the Jeju haenyeo community is classified into three types: the highly-skilled called sanggun, the journeymen called junggun, and the novices called hagun.
The culture of Jeju haenyeo contributes to the advancement of women’s status in Korean society, a typically male-centric, Confucian society. Furthermore, it raises global awareness of the importance of ICH for sustainable development. The nature of Jeju haenyeo culture, such as the sustainability of diving work, consideration for the weak, commitment to the common good, and its ecological aspects, is a good example for the sustainable development of human societies.
UNESCO recognized its social cohesion and cultural continuity for the communities concerned and its internal awareness of the importance of women’s work as intangible cultural heritage traditions. And, the culture of Jeju haenyeo encourages intercultural dialogue between haenyeo communities and other communities, which have similar practices. In this context, the culture of Jeju haenyeo was inscribed on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity on December 1, 2016.
Baekje Historic Areas (백제역사유적지구)
Baekje is one of the ancient countries that existed on the Korean Peninsula from 18 BCE to 660 CE. Located in the mountainous, mid-western region of the Republic of Korea, the Baekje Historic Areas comprise a series of eight archaeological sites, including the Gongsanseong Fortress and royal tombs at Songsan-ri in Gongju, the Busosanseong fortress and Gwanbuk-ri administrative buildings, the Jeongnimsa Temple, the royal tombs in Neungsan-ri and the Naseong city wall in Buyeo, the royal palace at Wanggung-ri, and the Mireuksa Temple in Iksan. These properties represent the historical tracts of relationships among the west-Asian ancient kingdoms of Korea, China, and Japan from the 5th to 7th century and conclusively stand for both architectural development and the spread of Buddhism.
Through these carefully-maintained properties, the reputation of its capital, Buddhist temples, ancient tombs, architecture, and stone pagodas are proud reminders of the culture, religion, and aesthetics of the ancient kingdom of Baekje. Acknowledged as a pivotal element of the ancient city, fortress, palace site, city wall, royal tomb, Buddhist temples represent the outstanding values of Baekje Historic Areas’ heritage. Such properties have conserved the crucial evidence of ancient architectural factors and technological progression. The fortress, city walls, mountainous region of the royal tomb, and location of traffic routes are included in both applied heritage and buffer zones. All these locations are state-designated heritage sites, and some sites are also under the ancient city specialized conservation program. By gaining heritage status, a considerable amount of effort has been made to maintain historical evidence and authenticity.
Jeongnimsa Temple Site (정림사지)
With Geumseongsan Mountain to the east and Busosan Mountain to the north, the Jeongnimsa Temple Site was constructed on flat land at the center of Buyeo during the Sabi Period. The surface of the stone pagoda is engraved with Chinese characters celebrating the victory of the Tang Dynasty over Baekje, indicating the symbolic importance of its location for Baekje.
An archaeological investigation of Jeongnimsa Temple Site confirmed the existence of the central gate site, prayer hall site, lecture hall site, and the sites of the monks’ dormitories in the north, east, and west, as well as the linking corridor sites. In particular, the layout of the monks’ dormitories attached to the corridors was a unique feature found only in Baekje
Jeongnimsa Temple was a typical example of the ‘one pagoda and one prayer hall’ style in which a pagoda and a prayer hall were placed in a line and surrounded by a lecture hall, the monks’ dormitories, and linking corridors. Also, archaeological excavations have revealed that the buildings that once stood on this site were wooden buildings constructed on tiled platforms.
The temple site also has an 8.3 m high, five-story, stone pagoda. This stone pagoda is well proportioned with a low platform and a high main body on its first story. In addition, the height and width of the main body starting from the second story were drastically reduced in order to direct one’s visual focus to the first story. On the first story of the main body, stone pillars were placed at the corners and each space between the pillars was filled with stone slabs, making it look like a gate with two doors. There is a thin roof stone on each story that is slightly sloped and raised at the end in order to maximize its artistic beauty. The original appearance of the pagoda has remained nearly intact from the platform to the roof stone on the fifth story, but most of its ornamental finial at the upper extremity of the pagoda was lost, except for part of the base of the finial. A hole for the finial pole holding the ornamental finial was drilled into the roof stone on the fifth story.
Gwanbuk-ri Relics (관북리유적)
Located at 725 Gwanbuk-ri, Buyeo-eup, Buyeo-gun, this site is known as a royal palace site. In September 1983, 33 lots (covering 2,102 square meters) out of a total of 184 lots (covering 95,048 square meters) to the south of the Buyeo National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage were designated as Chungcheongnam-do Monument No. 43 Palace Site of Baekje.
Starting in 1982, Chungnam National University Museum excavated the site five times. In 1983, a rectangular pond with stone embankments was discovered. In 1988, an earthenware vessel was found with the inscription “buksa” on the mouth. In 1992, traces of Baekje roads and gutters were identified in a spot about 50 m south of where the Buyeo National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage stands today.
Among the royal palaces of the Three Kingdoms Period, only the location of Anhakgung Palace of Goguryeo has been found; the exact locations of the palaces from Baekje and Silla are unknown. Therefore, the discovery of part of a site from Baekje in Sabi (Buyeo), the last capital of Baekje, carries great academic value.
Busosanseong Fortress of Buyeo (부소산성)
It is a fortress from Sabi period that surrounds Mt. Buso to the south of Baengmagang. The Samguksagi and Baekjebongi record its name as Sabiseong and Soburiseong; however, it is officially called Busosanseong Fortress following the name of the region it is located in.
The fortress is estimated to have been built around 538 CE (16th year of King Seong) to protect Sabi (now Buyeo), which was once the capital of the Baekje Kingdom, as the capital was moved from Ungjin (now Gongju).
Other historians, however, believe that the fortress was already in place by 500 CE (22nd year of King Dongseong) and modified in 605 (6th year of King Muwang) into the structure we see today. It is considered an important resource that shows the development of fortresses in Baekje.
It is a compound fortress centered on the mountaintop of Mt. Buso to the east and to the west, and there is a mountain fortress including valleys on the northeast. Some of the most famous sites on the mountain include Sajaru Pavilion, Banwollu Pavilion, Yeongillu Pavilion, Goransa Temple, Nakhwaam Rock, and Gunchangji.
Nakhwaam Rock (낙화암)
Nakhwaam is a rock cliff towering over Baengmagang River at the northern end of Busosan Mountain. According to legend, this is where the royal court women of Baekje jumped off to kill themselves when the kingdom of Baekje was defeated during the invasion of Sabiseong Fortress (now Busosanseong Fortress in Buyeo) by the Shilla-Tang Alliance. The name of this rock, Nakhwaam, literally means “the cliff of falling flowers”, and symbolizes the fidelity and loyalty of Baekje women.
Goransa Temple (고란사)
Goransa Temple is located at the foot of Baengmagang River and surrounded by the cliffs of Nakhwaam. The temple is assumed to have been built toward the end of the Baekje Kingdom. Although there is no historical record of the temple, it has been said it was used as a resting spot for the kings of the Baekje Kingdom.
There is a well named Goranjeong behind the temple, with Gorancho (Crypsinus hastatus) growing between the rocks above the well. The kings of Baekje used to drink water from Goranjeong at least once a day, and the servants who brought the water floated the leaves of the Gorancho plant as a sign that it came from that well.
Visitors to the temple should also take some time to enjoy the beautiful views of Baengmagang River. A ferry ride along the river also offers splendid views.
Baekje Cultural Land (백제문화관광단지)
Baekje Historical Museum (백제역사문화관)
Baekje Historical Museum preserves, researches, and provides all information related to the history and culture of Baekje. The hall is a comprehensive and expert educational museum that not only displays excavated relics but also shows graphics and documentaries produced with state-of-the-art technology to provide correct and in-depth knowledge on Baekje. The hall will serve as a mecca of Baekje culture.
Sabigung Palace (사비궁)
Sabigung Palace is the first restored royal palace of great Baekje from the Three Kingdoms Era.
Among the total of 14 buildings in the 4,492 m² area are Cheonjeongjeon in the middle, Munsajeon in the east, and Mudeokjeon in the west, and all three are connected by corridors. Based on the ancient palace architectural design, the main throne hall was restored. Cheonjeongjeon is a symbolic hall as it serves as a venue for New Year’s rituals, receiving envoys, and other important events. The 19 m height and the 337 m² area make the two-story building magnificent.
Neungsa is a royal temple within the palace vicinity. Its restoration involved recreating the exact same architectural design and size with reference to the relics excavated in Neungsan area, Buyeo; and its poles are arranged with the same width between each other.
The restoration mirrored the original architecture after considering the down pointing cantilever architecture shown in the gilt bronze pagoda Geumdongtappyeon excavated in Dongnam, Buyeo, the five-story pagoda, Buyeo Jeongnimsaji, and the five-story stone pagoda of Jeongnimsa Temple. The middle gate, pagoda, the main worship hall, and the auditorium are all laid straight in a row.
Living Culture Village (생활문화마을)
Living Culture Village is a representation of various social class communities in Baekje. Noblemen’s houses include Dajwapyeong’s private residence and General Gyebaek’s residence. Middle class and common people’s houses are all constructed so that visitors can learn about the different social classes, their homes, and their lifestyles. Visitors can also learn about Baekje folklore here.